Let Ric Ben-Safed add that George Lippard in his writings in “The Quaker City” and in the “Brotherhood of the Union” felt that he was identifying with the spirit of the Hermits of the Wissahickon.
Please join members of the Kelpius Society at 11:30 a.m., Saturday, June 22, 2013 atop the great steps outside the Philadelphia Museum of Art, for a free, special program that commemorates a 300-year-old summer solstice ceremony.
The event, which takes place at the east side forecourt at the top of the stairs overlooking the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, reenacts the historic arrival of a small group of German Pietists, led by Johann Kelpius, who settled in the Wissahickon in the late 1600s. The public is welcome to observe the summer solstice program and also learn about this fascinating Philadelphian, known in his time as the Wizard of the Wissahickon.
After a brief introduction from a Kelpius Society founder, architect Alvin Holm, the and other members will set up a long banner pole, creating a temporary sundial on the paved surface above the Museum steps, which will trace the morning shadow to determine the precise moment when the sun reaches its zenith on one of the longest days of the year.
On June 23, 1694, Johann Kelpius and his small band of German Pietists arrived in Philadelphia intending to establish a millennialist community in Philadelphia. When they sailed into port on the Delaware River it was the Eve of the Feast of Saint John, which coincides with the traditions of the June solstice. The group came straight away over to the Schuylkill where they took part in a Solstice bonfire ceremony on top of the most prominent hill, an area now known as Fairmount. Shortly afterward the religious group moved on to the Wissahickon Valley where they built their utopian settlement.
Today, very little is known about this small religious sect, and over the years its history has been clouded by pervasive legends, many of them popularized by 19th century Philadelphia authors such as Edgar Allan Poe and George Lippard. The modern day Kelpius Society is a 501c3 organization actively engaged in academic research, exploring Kelpius history, and in restoring and preserving the original Wissahickon site.
While searching I found an interesting article titled “Prophesies and Revelelations”: German Cabbalists in Early Pennsylvania. Very interesting stuff! And gave me some significant clues about the Christian Cabbala touchpoint with the Zohar of the Jewish Kabbalah. The article was published in The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 109. No.3 (Jul 1985). Then I spied this footnote that will interest all members of the Kelpius Society. “The manuscript copy of Kelpius’s diary and letterbook is in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. I have checked Sachse’s translation against the manuscript and have found several errors, especially transcription errors. I have used Sachse’s translation for quotations in English, but where his errors have confused or altered the meaning of a passage, I have inserted my own corrections in brackets. The article is signed by a Elizabeth W. Fisher, Harvard University. Wow! Now here is a manuscript that needs to be ‘translated’ and republished as the written work of John Kelpius. No one up to now, except for Julius Sachse , has even seen any written work of John Kelpius.
Heinrich Bernhard Koster was a member of Kelpius’ original Wissahickon Society. When the New Millennium failed to materialize in 1694, Koster started to drift away. He became affiliated with the followers of George Keith, who in 1691 had begun disrupting the Philadelphia area Quaker world by trying to lead them back a more orthodox form of Christianity, while Kelpius and the others maintained a strong relationship with the Quakers.
Evidently Koster, Thomas Rutter, William Davis, and Thomas Bowyer teamed up and published a pamphlet of their radical views (in High German and in English) entitled “Advice for All Professors and Writers.” No copies have been found, but in 1697 Francis Daniel Pastorius, founder of Germantown, published a refutation of this pamphlet entitled “Henry Bernhard Koster, William Davis, Thomas Rutter & Thomas Bowyer, four boasting disputers of this world briefly rebuked, and answered according to their folly, which they themselves have manifested in a late pamphlet, entitled, Advise for all professors and writers.” This pamphlet does exist and it gives insight into the contents of the former publication and the activities of the four named men. It hints at a communal experiment called “Irenia” near Germantown.
To quote Pastorius:
“They stile themselves The Brethren in America, The True Church of Philadelphia or Brotherly Love, &c. This sounds mightily afar off, and some silly Women in Germany, who may happen to see their pamphlet, which probably for that end and purpose was printed in the high Dutch tongue besides the English will be ready to think this Church or Brotherhood something real and considerable. But to undeceive those, who prefer Truth before fictions and falsehood, I herewith must inform them that all these specious Names and Epithets in the pages above quoted, and more others, are mere Kosterian Chimera, an idle fancy. He, the said H. B. Koster, arriving here in Pensilvania, his heart and head filled with Whimsical and boisterous Imaginations, but his hands and Purse emptied of the money, which our Friends beyond Sea imparted unto him, and some in his Company, was so cunning as to entice four or five to a Commonalty of Goods, and so settled a Plantation near German-town, upon a tract of Land given unto them, calling the same IRENIA; that is to say, the house of Peace, which not long after became ERINNIA, the House of raging Contention, and now returned to the donor, the Brethren of America being gone and dispersed, and the Church of Philadelphia (falsely so-called) proving momentary, and of no moment.” Since Pastorius says “falsely so-called,” I assume he means there was no official connection to Jane Leade’s London group “The Philadelphian Society For The Advancement Of Piety And Divine Philosophy.”
In a manuscript of the Pennepek (Pennypack) Baptist Church, it is written that “Wm. Davis, with one Henry Bernard Koster, a German, and others made up a kinde of Society, did break bread, lay on hands, washed one another’s feet, and went about having a community of goods. But in little time they disagreed & broke to pieces.”
In 1743, Rev. Ernst Ludwig Rathlef published a German biographical sketch of Koster, based on an interview he had had with the subject in 1730. Rathlef states that after Koster helped to build the Wissahickon community “[He] together with two others, bought another tract at Plymouth, not far from Germantown, where he remained for a length of time.”
The Pastorius and Rathlef accounts differ as to how the land for Irenia was acquired, but as Pastorius’ was contemporary to the events, I’ll hazard a guess that the land was donated and later reverted to the original owner. The dates are a bit confused, but the following material from the Philadelphia County Commissioners records indicate that there are land documents referring to “Irenia Land” circa 1695 (I need to track down these records):
“At a Session of the Commissioners at Philadelphia the 23d of the 12th Mo’th, 1701. Present, Edward Shippen, Griffith Owen, Thomas Story, James Logan, Sec’ry… The Commiss’rs, by Patent dated 26th 9 mo., 1695 [sic], Granted 500 acres to Rob’t Longshore, Purchaser in Bristol Township, in the County of Philad’a, joyning on Germantown, Irenia Land, and Will’m Wilkins, of which by Deed dated 1st 4 mo., 1686, he sold to Samuel Bennet 200 acres, who by Deed dated 2, 4, 1695, sold 150 thereof to David Potts, who sold to Wm. Harman 50 acres now in the Possession of Peter Clever.”
Based on the above, together with the 1687 Holmes Map of Philadelphia area landowners, I’m going to hazard a guess that Irenia was not in Plymouth Township, which did not border Germantown, but rather in Bristol Township, on land donated by the Bowyer family, adjacent to land of Thomas Rutter and Samuel Bennett (which they had purchased from Robert Longshore). Thomas Bowyer seems to have played a rather minor role, as his three fellow communitarians figure in many later events, but his name disappears from history.
I would be interested to know if anyone has other information about Irenia, its members, and their activities.
by Fred Kelso
Recently Del Conner and Jacquelin Brough went to the Wissahickon entering at Rittenhouse Town to search out the site of “the cave of Kelpius” that Del and his childhood friend Bob Moore used to visit in 1960’s. Bob, being from an old Germantown Quaker family learned of and had told Del the story of Kelpius, the Hermit, about Hermits Lane, the Hermitage, the root cellar that was said to have been the cave of Kelpius, and the long gone chamber of perfection.
As young boys the two would take many, many trips to the Wissahickon and their favorite hideaway, the cave above Rittenhouse Town that they thought was the true cave of Kelpius. Not as many people visited the Wissahickon in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s as do today, and few people would be encountered in the woods when Bob, Del and their friends explored the valley.
Living eight doors from each other on Erringer Place in lower west Germantown, on a snowy day in 1960 or ‘61, with school closed because of the storm, Bob and Del planned their first visit to the carve during a snow storm. With their backpacks loaded with peanut-butter and jelly sandwiches, a soup pan, milk, chocolate mix, a spoon, with matches and some newspaper to start a fire, they headed off to their Kelpius cave. Walking down Wissahickon Avenue from Manheim Street, they entered the Wissahckon at Rittenhouse Town then walked up the path at the western end of the town. At the top of the hill if you bear right the path takes you to Blue Bell field off of Walnut Lane. Bob and Del would take the path less taken, the one to the left that started downhill to forbidden Drive. Not far down the path from the top of the hill above Rittenhouse Town, and to the right was the cave. About eight feet deep and maybe about ten feet wide, it was tall enough to stand up in the front part and was big enough for a couple of kids to comfortably sit in.
Bob and Del knew of the Root Cellar that was said to have been the cave of Kelpius, where he would go to seclude himself form his brethren for his meditation. Crossing Blue Stone Bridge over the creek and heading back down stream while climbing the hill, they had explored the area around the Henry Avenue Bridge and the Hermitage. Although their cave was close to the busy Rittenhouse Town over the ridge, Bob and Del thought that their cave which faced southeast, looking toward the Kelpius site on the other side of the Creek just above its hair-pin turn, was a more secluded spot, and the one used by the Hermit.
- It took ten year olds Bob and Del almost an hour walking through deep snow to get to the cave that day. With the heavy snow still falling, there was a unique quite and peacefulness at the cave that touched them as had no other visit. It was as though they had stepped out of the city into a wilderness lost in time.
- Soon after arriving and feeling the cold, the two immediately set to looking under the snow for kindling and wood to burn. Having brought matches and newspaper but no kindling, their efforts at starting a small fire in the cave was unsuccessful. With the last match gone and no fire, they eat their sandwiches, drank the cold milk and set off for home.
- Sometime in the past twenty years Fairmount Park is said to have deliberately collapsed the cave above Rittenhouse Town, and it is today a pile of broken rock. However, in exploring the site it is possible to see that there remains a very small entrance into what appears to be a possible underground chamber between layers of rock.
Share your Kelpius experiences with us.
Story Recorded by Jacquelin Brough, Edited by Del Conner
Photography by Jacquelin Brough